OTHER SANCTIONS AGAINST RUSSIAN MEDIA IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Sanctions against State-owned Russian channels started after the annexion of Crimea in Mars 2014. The regulatory authorities in Latvia and Lithuania have received numerous complaints that several Russian language television channels contain broadcasts, which allegedly promote war and military conflict, as well as include incitement to hatred and destruction of the territorial unity of countries.
- EE - Estonia
On 25 February 2022, the Consumer Protection and Technical Regulatory Authority (TTJA) has ordered telecomms companies to end broadcasting four Russian, plus one Belarusian, TV channels on Estonian territory, on the grounds that they had been disseminating Kremlin propaganda, in the run-up to Thursday's military attack on Ukraine. (1)
The channels are RTR Planeta, NTV Mir (including NTV Mir Baltic), Belarus 24, Rossia 24 and TV Center International.
The TTJA has found that the television program RBK (also called RBC TV in international databases) broadcasts programs whose content, in summary, violates the prohibition to incite an offense, undermines public security, including ensuring national security and defense, and poses a significant threat to public security. The agency found that RBK's programs violated the requirements of the Law on Media Services, inciting hatred and violence by the Ukrainian authorities, army and people in the media service and endangering the lives, health and property of Ukrainians.
The TTJA highlighted that the named TV channels featured an announcement by the president of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, on February 24 (Independence Day in Estonia, and a national holiday), which as a whole could be interpreted as justifying a military attack, incitement to same, or violating principles of international law, the authority announced.
As a result, the TTAJ announced that the channels have transgressed a bar on inciting the violation of laws, harmed the security of society, including the state's internal security, and endangered national security.
The 9 March 2022, the TTAJ announced tha ban for 12 months of the channel. The agency found that RBK's programs violated the requirements of the Law on Media Services, inciting hatred and violence by the Ukrainian authorities, army and people in the media service and endangering the lives, health and property of Ukrainians. (2)
To date, TTJA has banned the retransmission of seven TV channels and restricted access to 11 websites. Together with the applied sanctions, more than 40 TV channels and more than 50 websites have been banned in Estonia. As alternative channels, telecommunications companies have offered TV viewers a number of other news channels (incl. In Russian or with Russian subtitles), eg Euronews RUS, Current Time / Nastojasheje Vremja, Ukraine 24, 1 + 1 International, Inter +, TV3 +, СуперГерои and others. In addition, TTJA has recently issued a nationwide television license to Russian-language TV channels 3+ Estonia and Kino 7. (3)
- LT - Lituania
Free reception of television channels NTV MIR Lithuania, RTR Planeta, REN TV Baltic, TVCI and PBK Lithuania was suspended in the territory of Lithuania 11 times in 2013-2018 due to instigation of war, incitement to hatred and discord.
At a meeting on 14 February 2018, Lithuania’s Radio and Television Commission (LRTK) decided to suspend the reception of Russian television channel RTR Planeta for one year. In a press release, the media watchdog said that the decision had been taken due to frequent legal violations by the broadcaster. In the broadcasting regulator’s opinion, RTR Planeta had breached the EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) and the Lithuanian Law on the Provision of Information to the Public three times in 2017. It had incited viewers to hatred among nations and instigated war in its programmes “Duel. Vladimir Solovjov Programme”, “Evening with Vladimir Solovjov” and “60 Minutes” (4)
The Lithuanian authorities informed the European Commission in March 2018 that the Russian language channel "RTR Planeta", broadcasting to Lithuania from Sweden, had been broadcasting content that could be deemed as incitement to hatred. The language used during some programmes on "RTR Planeta" referred to military confrontations and contained unambiguous threats of occupation or destruction of countries, including the Baltic states. The Lithuanian authorities therefore decided to suspend the retransmission of the channel for twelve months, from 23 February 2018 to 23 February 2019.(5)
On 25 February 2022 the Radio and Television Commission of Lithuania (LRTK) made a unanimous decision to temporarily suspend the free retransmission of 6 Russian language television programmes in the territory of Lithuania due to the persistent violations of international and national legal acts and the threat to national security and territorial integrity, instigation and propaganda of war and incitement to national hatred related to the Russia’s declared war against Ukraine. The decision was based on the provisions of article 3(3) of the Audiovisual Media Service Directive, which states “A Member State may provisionally derogate from paragraph 1 of this Article where an audiovisual media service provided by a media service provider under the jurisdiction of another Member State manifestly, seriously and gravely infringes point (b) of Article 6(1) or prejudices or presents a serious and grave risk of prejudice to public security, including the safeguarding of national security and defence” and article 341.4 of the Lithuanian Republic Law on the Provision of Information to the Public
The decision was taken on the basis of the investigation carried out by the Radio and Television Commission of Lithuania. It was established that the broadcast content of the programmes of the TV channels Belarus 24, NTV Mir, Pirmais Baltijas Kanals Lietuva (PBK), Planeta RTR, Rossija 24, TVCi was found as a threat to national security and integrity of Lithuania.(6)
YouTube also confirmed on 2 March the suppression of the channels on their platform, as per LRTK's request. LRTK has also asked that the Lithuanian government take measures to legally allow for the suspension of television programmes related to Gazprom Media, a subsidiary of Gazprombank - a bank that has been struck with financial sanctions by the EU (7)
LV - Latvia
On 3 April 2014 the National Electronic Mass Media Council of Latvia decided to restrict the rebroadcasting of television channel Rossiya RTR on the territory of Latvia for a period of three months after the decision date. The decision was made in the context of official announcements made by the Latvian Parliament, the Saeima, in March 2014 strongly condemning the action of Russia in the Ukraine. On 3 April 2014 the National Electronic Mass Media Council of Latvia decided to restrict the rebroadcasting of television channel Rossiya RTR on the territory of Latvia for a period of three months after the decision date. The decision was made in the context of official announcements made by the Latvian Parliament, the Saeima, in March 2014 strongly condemning the action of Russia in the Ukraine.
In 2015, the Commission considered that a temporary three-month suspension of the retransmission of "RTR Planeta" on the basis of incitement to hatred decided by Lithuania was compatible with EU law. In 2017 and 2018, the Commission reached the same conclusion regarding a further suspension by Lithuania regarding RTR Planeta. In March 2019 again, the Latvian authorities informed the Commission in March 2019 that the Russian language channel "Rossiya RTR", broadcasting to Latvia from Sweden, had been broadcasting content that could be deemed as incitement to hatred. The 6 May 2019, the EC announced that the Latvia’s decision to suspend broadcast of the Russian language channel "Rossiya RTR" complies with EU law.
From November 20, 2019, 9 programs may no longer be distributed in Latvia: “Vremya: dalekoye i blizkoye”, “Bobjor”, “Dom Kino”, “Dom Kino PREMIUM”, “Muzika Pervogo”, “O!”, “Poyekhali” , “TELECAFE”, “Petersburg - 5 channels”. One of the real beneficiaries of these programs is a person subject to sanctions - Yuri Kovalchuk. The distribution of the programs is temporarily prohibited until the lifting of the sanctions imposed by the Council of the European Union.
The 12 February 2020, the Administrative District Court of Latvia decided to maintain the NEPLP decision on restricting the distribution of 9 programmes. The Court has decided to reject the request for interim protection of SIA “Pirmais Baltijas Kanāls” and SIA TEM TV regarding the decision of the National Electronic Mass Media Council of 20 November 2019 No. 224 suspension of operation. Consequently, the decision of the NEPLP has been left and the prohibition of nine programmes in Latvia continues.
The 30 June 2020, the NEPLP, in compliance with sanctions imposed by Council of the European Union (EU) has decided to restrict the distribution of seven RT (formerly known as Russia Today) group programmes in Latvia, which in the opinion of Latvian security authorities are most influential Russian propaganda channels in the West Europe. “RT (Russia Today)”, “RT (Russia Today) HD”, “RT (Russia Today) Arabic”, “RT (Russia Today)” Spanish ”,“ RT Documentary (HD) ”,“ RT Documentary ”,“ RT TV (Russia Today TV) ”. These programs are in the sole possession and control of Dmitry Kiselyev, who is subject to sanctions by the Council of the European Union.
This decision was criticized by the association Reporters without Frontiers. "While it is legitimate to defend and promote independent and reliable news reporting, RSF regards these closures as a misuse of the EU sanctions policy. Banning or closing media is not part of the sanctions adopted against Kiselev. Regardless of the aggressiveness of Russian propaganda in Europe, EU sanctions are not a legitimate or appropriate tool for combating it. Rather than banning media outlets on loose grounds and on a flimsy legal basis, countries can require all media to guarantee editorial independence and can then impose legitimate sanctions, subject to judicial control, when it is established that media outlets have not complied with their obligations. Imposing the same requirements on all media outlets (regardless of their country of origin) makes it possible to avoid retaliatory measures from countries waging information wars."
The 16 February 2021, the NEPLP has imposed a one-year ban on retransmitting and distributing channel "Rossija RTR" in the territory of Latvia. It has found that information presented in several broadcasts of Rossija RTR also clearly violates Article 6 of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive and Section 26(3) and (4) of the Electronic Mass Media Law prohibiting incitement to hatred or discrimination against any person or group of persons on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, nationality, religion or belief, disability, age or other circumstances, and calling for war or military conflict.
The 19 February 2021, NEPLP excludes 16 programmes from the list of programmes retransmitted in Latvia : “REN TV Baltic”, “NTV Mir Baltic”, “Karusel International”, “NTV Serial” (“НТВ Сериал”), “NTV Stilj” (“НТВ Стиль”), “NTV Pravo” (“НТВ Право”), “Kinomiks” (“Киномикс”), “Nashe novoye kino” (“Наше новое кино”), “RODNOYE KINO” (“РОДНОЕ КИНО”), “INDIYSKOYE KINO” (“ИНДИЙСКОЕ КИНО”), “KINOKOMEDIYA” (“КИНОКОМЕДИЯ”), “KINOSERIYA” (“КИНОСЕРИЯ”), “KVN TV” (“КВН ТВ”), “Kukhnya TV” (“Кухня ТВ”), “BOKS TV” (“БОКС ТВ”) and “HD Life”. The decision was made because NEPLP stated not have information on the distribution representative or representatives of the aforementioned programmes in the territory of Latvia, who would be able to agree on the distribution of the programme in the territory of Latvia on behalf of the programme owners, likewise, the NEPLP has not received any information from the programme owners regarding their desire to continue the distribution of these programmes in the territory of Latvia.
The 24 February 2022 NEPLP prohibited the distribution Rossiya 24, RTR Planeta and TV Centr International on calls that threaten national security. RTR Planeta is banned for 5 years, Rossija 24 banned for 4 years, TV Centr banned for 3 years. This decision was taken for the first time in the history of the European Union, using a provision in the Audiovisual Media Services Directive that allows derogations from the approximately one-year restriction procedure in emergency situations."The violations are serious, and in the last two years, by restricting the operation of 41 Russian-related channels in Latvia with various decisions, Latvia has given a clear signal that we have protected, will protect and will protect our information space. NEPLP calls on all EU member states to use our evidence and to follow the example of Latvia by stopping the retransmission of these programs”stated Ivars Āboliņš, Chairman of NEPLP.
On 25 February 2022, the retransmission of the Belarusian television program "Balarus 24" was banned because the owner of the program, Ivan Eismont, a Belarusian citizen, is subject to EU sanctions. Two programs - PBK Estonia and PBK Lithuania - had their broadcasting licenses revoked. This decision was taken after verification of the beneficial owner Oleg Solodov and receipt of additional information from the competent authority.
On 28 February 2022, NEPLP excluded programs from the register of programs retransmitted in Latvia: “MIR 24” and “RTVi” for the distribution of content that endangers national security is biased and misleading. On February 27, such a decision was made regarding the RBK program.
On 7 March 2022, NEPLP has decided to ban the distribution in Latvia of 18 Russian television programs owned directly or indirectly by Gazprombank, a Russian-registered joint stock company, and sanctioned by the US Foreign Assets Control Bureau in February this year. Excluded from the list of programs to be broadcast: THT-Comedy, THT4 International, TNT, TNT Music, FRIDAY International, KHL TV channel, KHL HDTV channel, KINOPREM'YERA, KINOSVIDANIYE, Muzhskoye kino ”,“ Lya-minor TV ”,“ Avto Plus ”,“ Nostal’giya ”,“ ZHIVI! ”,“ Kto yest ’kto”, “Malysh-TV”, “Russkaya noch’ ”,“ Zee TV ”. The programs banned in Latvia belong to the Russian bank Gazprombank, its media holding company Gazprom Media Holdings or its subsidiary Red Media.
On 11 March 2022, it was decided by the Parliament (Saeima) that the use of illegal systems to watch TV programs will be punishable. In Latvia, there is an administrative responsibility for the end user for the use of illegal systems to watch television, including programs not allowed in Latvia. The fine for individuals will be up to 700 euros. The Saeima has approved the amendments to the Protected Service Law developed by the State Police in co-operation with the NEPLP, which provide for administrative liability for the installation, installation or use of an illegal system for personal (non-commercial) purposes, with a warning or fine of up to 700 euro. Until then, liability has been imposed on one party: for the unlawful manufacture, import, distribution, rental, sale or other disposal of restricted access systems for commercial purposes, and for the installation, installation, fitting or use of illegal systems for commercial purposes. up to 700 euros, but for a legal entity from 350 to 1,400 euros. In turn, the new amendments will strengthen the security and protection of the public digital space, as well as raise public awareness that the installation, installation, installation or use of illegal systems for private purposes is illegal. "The introduction of the new framework is an important step in encouraging the public to change their content consumption habits and to stop using illegal equipment and systems to watch illegal programs, including Russian programs that support Russia's bloodshed in Ukraine or threaten our country. security, ”pointed out NEPLP member Ieva Kalderauska. Until then, various illegal solutions or systems have been used in Latvia for the population to watch television programs. There are three common types of illegal connections, including the so-called "Tricolor TV" boxes, the technical solution for sharing television signal decoding cards - "Card sharing", and unlicensed IPTV (technology for transmitting television signals over Internet communication channels). The NEPLP and the State Police emphasize that providing for administrative liability for the use of illegal systems is not intended to punish citizens. Amendments to the law should primarily act as a warning against the use of illegal systems. At the moment, the police will not knock on every door with an administrative violation protocol. However, it must be borne in mind that, when receiving information and investigating an illegal distributor, the services provided by the service providers criminal offenses, the State Police also has access to information about their clients. Illegal equipment can also be detected remotely without entering a home.
The 15 March 2022, the NEPLP restricted the access to 71 websites in Latvia, denying access to the domain names or Internet Protocol addresses of these websites, as the content distributed therein poses a threat to Latvia's national security. During the inspection, the NEPLP, as well as the competent state administration, found that the information disseminated on the websites showed signs of systematic dissemination of aggressive Russian propaganda, including war propaganda, incitement to national hatred, and support for Russia's military invasion of Ukraine. They also spread distorted and false information about events in the world, including the war in Ukraine, justifying Russia's actions. Such information in the Latvian information space can create a misconception about events in the world, negatively affect the coexistence of various groups in society and pose a threat to the security of the Latvian state.
On 24 March 2022, the NEPLP decided to restrict two more websites available in Latvia, as the content distributed on them poses a threat to Latvia's national security. National security threats have also been identified in the content of two Youtube accounts. NEPLP has asked Youtube to block access to the accounts in Latvia: "История Оружия" and "Alconafter". Such a decision could be taken by the NEPLP due to the amendments to the Electronic Communications Law adopted by the Saeima on March 10, 2022, which granted the NEPLP the right to restrict access to Internet sites containing content that endangers national security.
On 6th June 2022, the NEPLP announced to ban of 80 Russian TV channels and to issue a license to Dozhd TV. The decision will take effect on June 9. Prohibited channels include, for example, the TV program "E TV", "Иллюзион +", "Кино24", "Мир ТВ", "Охота и рыбалка", "ПерецI", "Русский Иллюзион" and others. Such a decision will remain in effect until Russia ceases hostilities in Ukraine and returns Crimea. (8)
«These changes dictate that television channels of countries that are not part of the European Union, European Economic Zone, North Atlantic Treaty or Convention on Transfrontier Television, as well as countries that put at risk other countries’ territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence will no longer be available in Latvia,» explains chairman of Latvian Saeima Human Rights and Public Affairs Committee Artuss Kaimiņš.
Speaking the 8th June 2022 about Latvia's ban on Russian TV channels, Zakharova called it a "mediagenocide". Particularly, she referred to the local media watchdog's decision to prohibit the broadcasting of all Russian-registered TV channels. "The only fault of these media operators [...] is that they had the imprudence to be licensed as a media outlet under Russian jurisdiction," she said, adding, "The implementation of this measure deprives about 40% of the country's population of access to almost all television sources of information in Russian." (farsnews.ir, 8.6.2022)
In June 2022, Latvia’s Regional Administrative Court has ruled against the resumption of the broadcasting of PBK Lithuania and PBK Estonia in the country. It has also rejected a request by PBK to suspend a decision by the Latvian regulator NEPLP to revoke the licences of the First Baltic Channel Lithuania and First Baltic Channel Estonia
MD - Moldavia
On 7 October 2014, the broadcast regulator of Moldova, the Council for Coordination on Audiovisual (CCA), following a complaint on the failure to observe the principles of political balance, impartiality and objectivity in newscasts of Russian origin, issued a decision which sanctioned several Moldovan companies that re-broadcast Russian TV newscasts and other programmes. In particular, “Teleproiect, SRL” was found to be an offender in relation to its functions as an affiliate of “REN-Moldova TV”, re-transmitting in Moldova broadcasts of Moscow’s REN-TV, as well as its own programming and commercials. Teleproiect appealed the decision, but the CCA confirmed it again on 5 November 2014. Teleproiect then took the complaint to court. In December, the judge, in order to secure the claim and avoid the increasing complexity of the case, ruled to grant the suspension of the CCA decision. (9)
The rebroadcasting of Russian TV channels' information, analytical and military programs was banned in Moldova from 2017 to late 2020. (10)
The 5 April 2018, the CCA unanimously decided to impose a fine of MDL 70 000 (3500 EUR) on General Media Group Corp. Ltd., the founder of the Prime television network, for a live rebroadcast, on 1 March 2018, of the annual address of the Russian President Vladimir Putin to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. At the CCA hearings on 5 April 2018, the broadcaster claimed that the programme had not fallen under any of the categories defined by law. It also said that the live broadcast was neither unforeseen in the listings, nor initiated by Prime, whereas its editorial content could not be anticipated by the re-broadcaster. It assured the CCA that it would do its utmost to ensure that “such problems do not arise in the future”.
The Moldovan government's Commission for Emergency Situations adopted a decision the 2 March to suspend the rebroadcasting of Russian television channels' information and analytical programs in the country during the state of emergency. "The rebroadcasting of news and analytical programs of countries that have not ratified the European Convention on Transfrontier Television [Russia has not ratified this convention] has been temporarily prohibited," the commission said in its decision.(10)
Moldovan television stations which rebroadcast Russian TV channels' programs have been ordered to halt the rebroadcasting of all programs from countries that have not ratified the aforementioned convention. The measure, however, does not apply to feature films, short films and entertainment programs.
The commission also adopted a decision that allows the country's television and radio council to suspend the broadcasting and rebroadcasting licenses of providers and TV channels during the state of emergency.
Since the start of Russia's special operation in Ukraine, Moldovan TV channels have stopped rebroadcasting the majority of Russian TV channels' information programs. At the same time, the council has fined three Moldovan TV stations "for providing distorted coverage of the events in Ukraine" in their own information programs.
The Moldovan parliament has introduced a state of emergency in the country for 60 days over the situation in Ukraine.
On the 2nd June 2022, the Moldovan parliament has passed legislation banning broadcasts of a number of Russian TV programs in the country (11). The bill On Information Security was supported by members of the parliamentary faction of the ruling Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS). The bill, which also envisions amendments to the Code of Audiovisual Services, bans "the retransmission on the radio and television of news, military, political, and analytical programs from countries that have not ratified the European Convention on Transfrontier Television."
In addition, 50% of foreign programs broadcast by Moldovan TV channels must originate from EU countries, the United States, and signatories to said convention.
The legislation implies that Moldovan TV channels retransmitting Russian programs will be allowed only to show films, TV series, musical and entertainment programs. An identical ban had been imposed in Moldova in 2017 but was lifted at the end of 2020. After the start of the Russian special operation in Ukraine, the Emergency Situation Commission reinstated the ban for the period of the state of emergency. Now the ban has been codified at the legislative level.
The amendments also envision fines of up to 100,000 lei (5,000 euros) on broadcasters for disseminating disinformation on radio and TV. A repeated violation might be punished by a temporary ban of up to three months on placing ads on TV.
When the bill was considered at the second reading, it underwent some fundamental adjustments compared to its original version, which the parliamentarians had considered at the first reading in mid-April. In particular, removed from the amended bill were clauses expanding the Information and Security Service's powers in opposing disinformation and some other provisions, which were harshly criticized by the opposition and civil society.
PL - Poland
The 25 February 2022, the National Broadcasting Council (KRRiT) announced that due to security and defense issues of the Republic of Poland, the National Broadcasting Council adopted a resolution on deleting from the register of programs distributed programs: RT (Russia Today), RT Documentary, RTR Planeta, Sojuz TV, Russija 24. The decision was directly implemented by the main cable and IPTV operators. (12)
The National Broadcasting Council announced the 4 March that, in coordination with the Government Plenipotentiary for Cyber Security Janusz Cieszyński, it was urgently conducting a verification of all Russian and Belarusian TV programs distributed in Poland. (13)
KRRiT also indicated the same day having removed from the register of TV programmes Belarus 24 and Pervyj Channel.
Two day after the invaison of Ukraine, the Slovak Authority (Rada pre vysielanie a retransmisiu - RVR) has issued a released explaining why the law was not allowing it to take immediate sanction and proposing a self-regulatory approach by the distributors (14) : "(...) The problem is intensively addressed by the Slovak Broadcasting and Retransmission Council, which has carefully considered the possibilities of action in our country. This is limited by current legislation. The draft media services bill submitted to parliament should allow the regulator to react more flexibly in such cases.
The European Audiovisual Media Services Directive and the current Slovak Broadcasting and Retransmission Act stipulate the same procedure in the case of distribution of a program service whose content clearly, seriously and grossly incites hatred on the grounds of race, sex, religion or nationality . This procedure allows the regulator to decide to suspend the retransmission of such a program service, but this measure cannot be applied with immediate effect .
The Council may accede to it only if the broadcaster has committed that conduct at least twice in the previous 12 months, which must be preceded by the Council's monitoring for malicious content. Following the finding of such a procedure, the Council is to inform the broadcaster itself, the country of origin of the program service and the European Commission of their intention to limit the distribution of the program service, which are to work together to settle the dispute. If this does not happen within 15 days, the Council may decide to limit the distribution of the program service.
"It is clear that such a procedure is disproportionately lengthy in the current situation and therefore inefficient. Therefore, we fully support the decision of Slovak operators to exclude disputed Russian television channels from their programming and we offer those operators who are still hesitant to make such a decision , within which we will provide all relevant information necessary to implement the decision. ", said Ľuboš Kukliš, Director of the Council Office. As part of the consultation, the Council will provide operators with evidence of the harmfulness and illegality of the content broadcast by the disputed television stations resulting from the monitoring of their broadcasting by other European regulators, with whom the Council is communicating intensively these days.
The Council is also available to operators when interpreting the law and can also provide them with more detailed information on the conduct of regulators in other member states.
"We understand if operators consider the argument of maintaining the plurality of information when modifying their program offer. In this context, however, we would like to draw attention to the fact that the Russian telecommunications office on Thursday ordered the local media to publish only information from official Russian sources in connection with the situation in Ukraine , " said L. Kukliš on the possible option of maintaining the current program offer."
UA - Ukraine
In reaction to the events unfolding in Ukraine, the Ukrainian regulator, the National Council of Television and Radio Broadcasting (NCTRB) decided on 25 February 2022 to suspend retransmission of more than seventy Russian TV channels in connection with recurring use of violent rhetoric referring to the Ukrainian authorities, law enforcement bodies, armed forces and the Ukrainian people in general; perceived as a threat to national security in the context of the current crisis.
(1) TTJA decided to ban the retransmission of five TV channels on the territory of the Republic of Estonia, TTJA, 25.2.2022 ; Four Russian TV channels banned from Estonian airwaves, ERR, 25.2.2022 ; Situation in Ukraine prompts reactions from NRAs across Europe, EPRA, 25.2.2022
(2) As of today, TTJA banned the retransmission of the TV channel RBK in Estonia, TTAJ, 9.3.2022 (Google translation)
(3) TTJA restricts access to four more websites, 08.04.2022 (Google translation)
(4) Ingo Beckendorf, Lithuania suspens Russian TV channel RTR Palneta for one Year, IRIS, European Audiovisual Observatory, 4, 1/32
(6) Lithuania bans Russian, Belarusian TV channels over war incitement, LTR, 25;2.2022 ; The English version of the decisions No. KS-30, No. KS-31, No. KS-32
(7) Situation in Ukraine prompts reactions from NRAs across Europe, EPRA, 25.2.2022
(8) “Situation in Ukraine prompts reactions from NRAs across Europe”, EPRA, 25 February 2022, ;
Latvia shuts down broadcasts of all Russia-based television channels, Baltic News Network, 6.6.2022
(11) Andrei Richter, MD - Broadcaster fined for Airing Russian Programme, IRIS 2018-7:1/25, European Audiovisual Observatory.
(11) Moldova passes legislation banning broadcasts of Russian news, military, political TV programs, Interfax, 2 June 2022 ; Moldavie : le Parlement interdit la diffusion d'émissions d'informations russes à la radio et à la télévision, France Info, 2.6.2022
(13) The National Broadcasting Council verifies all Russian and Belarusian TV programs entered in the register; KRRit, 4.3.2022 ; Further Russian and Belarusian channels removed by the National Broadcasting Council (NBC) from the register of TV channels, KRRit, 4.3.2022
(14) K obmedzeniu retransmisie programových služieb, RVR, 26.2.2022 (Google translation : To limit the retransmission of program services)